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British Soldiers Lichen
Cladonia cristatella


Vermont, USA




Lichens can grow just about anywhere, even in the most inhospitable environments on earth. They are important food, shelter, and nesting material for many species of invertebrates, birds, and mammals. Throughout history, lichens have been used by humans as food, medicine, decoration, and dyes. Because lichens are long-lived and extremely sensitive, they are important indicators of how pollution and climate change affect the ecosystems in which they live.

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Meg Madden
Professional photographer, naturalist, mycologist. Myco influencer & educator.
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